On August 17, 1862, a group of Dakota Sioux warriors, angry over decades of broken treaties and encroachment on their lands, killed five white settlers on the Minnesota frontier. U.S. soldiers retaliated, and the bloody Dakota War continued for six weeks. A military tribunal condemned more than 300 Dakotas to death without providing them legal rights. President Lincoln intervened to save 265, but 38 were hanged (just days before his Emancipation Proclamation) in the largest government-ordered mass execution in U.S. history. Important reading for fans of Steven Spielberg’s new film, Lincoln (opening November 16th).